What is hyaluronic acid ?
Hyaluronic acid is one of the main components of human extracellular matrix and intercellular substance. It is a filler between cells and plays an important role in skin morphology, structure and function.
Hyaluronic acid is the main component of human intercellular substance, the appearance of aging, wrinkles, relaxation, and skin hyaluronic acid content is greatly related to the reduction. Therefore, hyaluronic acid is often injected in medical cosmetology to fill potholes, remove wrinkles, delay aging, and is also used in lip thickening surgery, rhinoplasty and so on.
In terms of structure, it’s a condensation of two glucose derivatives, and then it repeats this structure over and over again to form hyaluronic acid, which is also very similar to the structure of most polysaccharides, and because of this structure, it has the function of most polysaccharides — moisturizing.
Classification of hyaluronic acid
- High molecular weight hyaluronic acid
The molecular weight of hyaluronic acid is higher than 2000KDa, which can form a breathable film on the surface of the skin and lock moisture on the surface of the skin to prevent moisture evaporation and moisturize for a long time. But it has poor penetration and will not be absorbed into the skin.
- Medium molecular weight hyaluronic acid
The molecular weight of hyaluronic acid is between 500KDa and 2000KDa. It can also form a breathable film on the surface of the skin to lock in moisture and tighten the skin.
- Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid
The molecular weight of hyaluronic acid is between 10KDa and 500KDa. It can penetrate into the dermis of the skin, play a role in the skin, lock in water, promote skin metabolism, and make the skin moist, smooth, delicate, tender and elastic. The ability to prevent water from evaporating is very poor.
Biochemical drugs with high clinical value are widely used in all kinds of eye surgery, such as crystal implantation, corneal transplantation and anti-glaucoma surgery. It can also be used to treat arthritis and speed wound healing. When it is used in cosmetics, it can play a unique role in protecting the skin, keeping the skin moist and smooth, delicate and tender, elastic, with anti-wrinkle, anti-wrinkle, beauty and health care and restore the physiological function of the skin.
There is a small molecular weight hyaluronic acid, which focuses on transdermal absorption, and is actually more of a repair and anti-aging function than a moisturizer. Because in addition to moisturizing, hyaluronic acid also functions like signaling molecules inside the skin, triggering a range of biological reactions.
Generally speaking, small molecular weight hyaluronic acid products will be called hydrolyzed hyaluronic acid, molecular weight in thousands to ten thousand, the size is nano level, easy to penetrate the skin. Small molecular weight hyaluronic acid can penetrate to about the depth of the dermis.
Hyaluronic acid also has some modifications, the most common of which is acetylation, which makes hyaluronic acid more skin-friendly.
Many high-end products use more of these products. There is also some oil-soluble sodium hyaluronate, commonly used in lipstick to plump lips.
Some cationic modification of hyaluronic acid, used in shampoo more, because it can be more close to the hair surface.